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Cushing's Disease in Dogs

Cushing's Disease in Dogs

Cushing's disease in dogs can be a serious threat to your pet's overall health and longevity. In today's blog, our Thousand Oaks veterinary team explains the causes of this serious condition, as well as complications that can arise and treatments.

What causes Cushing's disease in dogs?

If your dog has a pituitary tumor, which can cause an excessive amount of cortisol to be produced in their bodies, they may develop Dependent Cushing's disease or hyperadrenocorticism. Your dog is more likely to develop a variety of different illnesses and conditions as a result of this serious condition.

What are some common complications of Cushing's disease in dogs?

Dogs with Cushing's disease are more likely to develop diabetes, high blood pressure, blood clots, and kidney damage.

Does Cushing's cause breathing problems in dogs?

Breathing issues could be brought on by blood clots called thromboembolism that block the lungs' blood vessels. Canines with Cushing's disease are more likely to develop this condition as well as potentially fatal heart and lung issues.

Symptoms & Complications of Cushing’s Disease

It's crucial to see your doctor as soon as you notice any symptoms of Cushing's disease because they can be ambiguous. Dogs with Cushing's disease have a higher risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, blood clots, and kidney damage. Any of the symptoms listed below may be present in your dog if they have Cushing's disease:

  • Hair loss
  • Excessive thirst or drinking
  • Thinning of the skin
  • Muscle weakness
  • Potbelly
  • Panting
  • Lethargy
  • Increased appetite

How is Cushing's disease diagnosed in dogs?

Your veterinarian will only be able to diagnose Cushing's disease through blood tests. A urinalysis, urine culture, adrenal function tests (low dose and high dose dexamethasone suppression test, and potentially ACTH stimulation test), full chemistry panel, and complete blood panel may be used to determine the cause of your dog's symptoms.

At VSEC in Thousand Oaks, our vets are experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of internal medicine conditions. We have access to state-of-the-art diagnostic imaging tools and treatment methods to identify and manage these issues.

In combination with a physical exam to look for signs of the disease, these tests can help your vet arrive at a diagnosis. Keep in mind that adrenal function tests can result in false positives when another disease with similar clinical signs is present.

Although ultrasound can help rule out other possible causes of your dog's symptoms, it is more useful in aiding in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. Other illnesses that may produce similar symptoms include splenic or liver tumors, bladder stones, gallbladder disease, gastrointestinal disease, and chronic inflammatory liver disease.

An ultrasound may not be able to detect adrenal enlargement, since patient movement or interference due to gas in the overlying intestine can influence test results. Most vets prefer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - an effective but expensive diagnostic imaging procedure that allows your vet to assess your dog’s adrenal glands.

What are the medications for Cushing's disease in dogs?

There are two main drugs that can be used to treat Cushing's disease in your dog. A form of the insecticide DDT (drug names include Lysodren® and mitotane) can destroy the cortisol-producing cells in the adrenal glands. Furthermore, medications such as trilostane help reduce the amount of cortisol produced by the adrenal glands. This is accomplished by inhibiting specific steps in the cortisol production process. Trilostane and mitotane are both effective at treating and controlling the symptoms of Cushing's disease.

Discuss which may be the most effective treatment for your dog, and follow your vet's instructions diligently.

After the induction phase with mitotane, you will need to bring your dog to our clinic for an ACTH stimulation test, which “stimulates” the adrenal gland. This test can be done on an outpatient basis to help your vet determine the starting point for a mitotane maintenance dose. If the mitotane is working, the adrenal gland will not overreact to the stimulation.

Though you won’t need an induction phase for trilostane, dogs often require small adjustments to trilostane doses early in treatment. Over their lifetime, routine monitoring of blood tests may indicate that other adjustments need to be made. How well clinical symptoms of Cushing’s disease can be controlled can also mean changes are required.

No matter which medication your vet feels is best for your pooch, your dog will likely be on it for the long term and may require periodic adjustments in doses. He or she will need to come in for ACTH stimulation tests as often as monthly until we can control the excessive production of cortisone. Regular testing will be needed.

Could there be any adverse reactions to my dog's treatment for Cushing's?

Cushing's disease symptoms can be reduced with careful observation and long-term management. Medication for Cushing's disease, when used correctly, can be very effective in treating the condition. However, the wrong dose can have mild to severe side effects.

With blood test monitoring, it’s unusual for adverse reactions to appear. But if they do, they may include:

  • Lethargy or depression
  • General weakness
  • Stomach upset (Gastrointestinal symptoms - diarrhea or vomiting)
  • Picky eating or decreased appetite

If you spot any of these symptoms, discontinue the medication and call your veterinarian right away.

While medication costs and the need for frequent blood monitoring can make Cushing’s disease expensive to manage, diligent follow-up care and monitoring for adrenal function can make for a good prognosis.

Pets who do not receive adequate monitoring and follow-up often experience relapses and severe illness or death, as a result of complications.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

Is your dog showing signs of Cushing's Disease? At VSEC in Thousand Oaks, our vets are here to help your pet feel better. Contact us today to make an appointment for your dog.

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